UPDATED: 14 April 2018
The Commander can direct a record or diagnostic APFT whenever they deem it appropriate.
There is no requirement to provide notification for an APFT test however FM 7-22 Appendix A states:
A-8. The commander should ensure that testing is consistent with regard to events, scoring, clothing, equipment and facilities. Testing should be planned to permit each Soldier to perform at his maximal level, and should ensure the following:
- Soldiers are not tested when fatigued or ill.
- Soldiers do not participate in tiring duties before taking an APFT.
- Weather and environmental conditions do not inhibit physical performance.
- Risk analysis is conducted.
This implies the command should provide adequate notice to ensure the best possible performance.