Great Question! If your rebuttal was disrespectful in its content then yes this could lead to a second counseling with corrective training.
If it was an honest opinion of the counseling, done in a professional manner, then no, the Soldier should not be given corrective training. Some explanation from the leader should be given as to why corrective training is appropriate.
Items for Consideration
I would encourage you to be careful how you approach this. Here are some things to consider if you decide to approach your chain of command. Be factual, calm, unemotional. Use your NCO Support Channel and Chain of Command to solve the issue at the lowest possible level. If this does not work you can consider using the 1SG and/or Commander’s Open Door Policy, and/or calling the IG.